J A S T R E B A C
– For more than 150 million years in the Triassic era, at the beginning of the Mesozoic, the Indian and the Athenian oceans, they were merged with the then prehistoric Equatorial Ocean, which is referred to as the Tetris in science.
– Lesser tectonic movements from Equator to the north, there were mountain massifs, the Alps, the Carpathians and the Dinarides. The gradual shifts to the north and elevation of the ground, the ocean of Tetis, is separated by the mentioned mountain massifs, behind which the prehistoric sea Paratetis remained. By further rising of the soil, Paratetis separated into several smaller basins, such as the Caspian, Pannonian, Aral, etc. … The remains that testify to the existence of the prehistoric sea are still visible in the form of shallow water bodies such as Palic, Balaton, Black Sea, the Caspian Sea, etc. … But long before the creation of the Alps, Dinarides, Carpathians and other mountain massifs in that part of the world, a lonely tropical island rises above the surface of the prehistoric ocean of Tethys. By dividing the super-continent called Pangea, the mentioned island, it began to move north, and the depth of the ocean around the island gradually diminished until it finally dried up and left a fertile plain behind.
– The plot which remained in the center of this plain, today is known as the Jastrebac, and consists of two massifs, the Big and the Small Easter. – Located in the heart of the Balkans and equally distant from all the present-day seas surrounding it, the Aegean (470 km), the Adriatic (470 km), the Black (510 km), Jastrebac is also known as the most forested mountain of the Balkans. Almost the entire area (98%) of the Big and Small Easter is covered with thick deciduous and coniferous forests. Beech, oak, acacia are predominant, but a significant percentage of forests are made up of conifers. What is unusual for this part of Europe is that the Jastrepac can be found and smaller parts are almost exclusively covered by birch forests.
– Also known as the Dragon Mountain, is featured in a folk song that talks about the interesting relationship between the dragon and the nobleman “The Emperor Milica and the Dragon of the Easter”: Little by little, for a long time, the Jastrebac Mountains shine And the dragons dragged from the Easter tree From Zmajevac from the water Studene. Then he will come down to the white towers, He will fall on the soft mattresses, He will cast his dragon’s fire in the fire, And with the Empress lay on the pillows.
-Legenda says that the empress, unable to for decades to bear the heir of the Lazarevic line, finally got a son from a secret romance with Zmajem from Jastrebac. Whether it is a truth or a local myth, it is difficult to say, but what the modern world history records is that the emperor’s son and successor to the throne Despot Stefan Lazarevic, the founder of the knight’s order of dragon, which counted 24 members, whose members Among others, Zigmund of Luxembourg, prince of Lithuania Vitevot, king of Denmark and Bavaria Christopher III, Ladislav II king of Poland, king of Naples Alfonso, Ernst Duke of Austria, Duke of Transylvania Count Vlad Tepes Drakul et al.
– Another local legend is that at that time Jastrebac had abundant golden streams for the exploitation of Bogdan from the southern foot of the mountain. There are no written traces about this landlord, but at the southern foot of that mountain there is today the village of Jugbogdanovac.
– An ancient story says that in the mountain lived two sisters of the Jelica and Jaglika shepherds, which were visited by some local nobles at night. The stories say that the sisters were actually the Jastrebac villas that managed to capture the biggest heroes by their passion and love charms, and that Milos Obilić and Bosko Jugović went to secret meetings with secrets. – Not long ago, the hawk decided to bring the whole nest to the bare mountain. While he was carrying nests for the nest, the seeds that had previously been bare appeared to them, turned into a mountain covered with dense forests, and the mountain got the name Jastrebac. – The plot is abundant with water, and many streams are flooded along the slope of the mountain. Mountains can be found on several mountains, and a few lakes are located in the plain at the very foot of the mountain. -Jastrebac hides large thermal potential in its womb, and on several sides at the foot of the mountain, there are several sources of thermal water.
– Due to its fantastic climate, sunshine during all seasons, the base of Jastrepac was settled in the Stone Age more than 6000 years ago, as evidenced by the remains of neolithic settlements in fertile plains at the foot of the mountain. – The air currents flowing from warm and fertile valleys (150 m above sea level), ascend along the slopes of Jastrebac, up to its peak (1500 m above sea level), as well as untouched nature, favor the development of a large number of autochthonous plant species, both on the entire mountain, Both in the plain surrounded by it. The optimal latitude, the ideal relief and the high altitude difference, have been created by Jastrepac and the surrounding fields, a unique habitat of honey flora whose quantity and quality are far ahead of the rest of the continent.
– As a large number of positive natural Conditions, this region is one of the few in Europe that in every way meets all conditions for dealing with beekeeping. Climatic and altitude differences in this area are conditioned by the different vegetative processes of certain plants over a longer period of time, which enables bees to continue productivity. High bee efficiency is the result of a season in this area, far longer than anywhere else. -Med from these regions is of very high polifloral quality, and a large number of honey plants from this region, besides aromatic, have medicinal properties.
D E V Č A
– More than 500 years before n.e. The then Roman military and trade route (Via Militaris), which connected the Middle East with the Adriatic, was passing through the middle of the Balkans. Part of the route connecting Naisus and Hameum was today, today the highway Niš-Prokuplje passes. Starting from the direction of Nis on the 20th kilometer, and about ten kilometers away from Prokuplje, the village of Jugbogdanovac is located. If you turn right and extend a few kilometers to the north, you will arrive in a little village Devča at the foot of Mount Jastrebac.
– Turkish inventory from 1544 shows that the Devcha consisted of 8 households, of which 2 widows. Since at that time the charge was strictly taken into account, widow households had to be registered in order to be exempt from paying taxes. The remaining 6 households were not even like today’s households. They consisted of 30 to 70 members and were designed according to the principle of family co-operative.
– The Austrian conflict in 1690 and 1737 forced the population to leave their homes and, under the leadership of Arseny III and Arseny IV, moved from these parts. Most of them went south to the Pcinja district, while some of them moved, north to Lika and Dalmatia, and even to the interior of Europe. After more than 150 years of absence from these parts, the villages in this area were re-inhabited. Some families, from the Pcinja district, returned to their homes and returned to Devca some of the local shepherds who, for the same reason, escaped from certain Greek regions. Thus, with the old people, the famous Greek pastor Janja settled in the village of Devc. The girl was at that time, located in a region controlled by the Turkish Bali Beg, whose name was named three villages in his forerunner. Balicevac is a village in which famous flea has had its fields of wheat. Balinovac village in which he had his own bakery. And in the village of Balajinac, there was the famous Bali-bey scaffolding on whose income the only begging was absolute right.
– In the second half of the twentieth century, the village of Devcha began to leave the younger generations again for work and education. The ideal climate was created from the Devcha area surrounded by untouched nature, which provides the privilege of living in an environmentally clean environment. -Adequate climate, ecologically clean habitat, solid road infrastructure, 20 km from highway A1 (Belgrade-Skopje), 30km from Konstantin Veliki International Airport in Nis, excellent technical infrastructure, as well as huge potential of the area, has contributed greatly to the idea of launching The first beekeeping cooperatives in these areas.
– The beginning of the co-operation in Serbia was based on “blood” cooperatives. Co-operatives were first organized and from a legal aspect defined by the Serbian Civil Code from 1844. The then understanding of global business led to the fact that modern economy spread rapidly in the territory of our country, which resulted in the third cooperative, which was established in the world, was right here in our area. During the course of their history, the cooperatives have progressed and adjusted their business with new trends, so that before the beginning of the First World War, more than 100,000 active members of the cooperative were active in our country. By the half of the last century, cooperatives were the headquarters in the field of agriculture, were the bearers of agricultural production and the development of rural areas.
– In the second half of the last century, there is an even greater expansion of the idea of a cooperative, and other co-operatives are beginning to form. Students, craftsmen, workers, consumers, as well as other types of cooperatives, have become economies of the whole country. Among them, by their membership and the volume of capital, they especially pointed out housing cooperatives that owned the largest number of properties that were then built. The traces of the existence of these powerful cooperatives are still present today. Whole cities and parts of cities throughout the former Yugoslavia are abundant with housing complexes that have arisen as a result of cooperative activities. On the maps of our cities today, the parts of urban environments, built by cooperatives, dominate.
– In the years to come, the term co-operatives is quite unclear in our region. A stereotypical notion of cooperatives is one of the main obstacles for the development of this form of business in Slovenia. What is due to business propaganda, which is due to economic turmoil, our business is more popular with small and medium-sized enterprises, which again represent a form of individual economic activity on the market. The only effective way for more rational business, reducing costs and increasing the competitiveness of products and services is through association.
– Recognizing this, the current world economy is based on large cooperatives, while small and medium-sized enterprises are only satellite cooperators of large systems. One of the world’s largest railways, banks, large hotel chains, telecommunication systems is just a part of the power, large cooperatives and business giants of the western business world.
– Cooperation on cooperatives, is based on cooperative principles and cooperative values, prescribed by the law on cooperatives and cooperative rules. Volunteering in the phase of accession or establishment, solidarity as the basic principle of business association, democratic decision-making rights, autonomy of the functioning of the cooperative in the spirit of a good businessman, and in relation to other institutions, are only part of the principles on which cooperative activity rests. – By combining work, finance, intellectual skills, business knowledge, business experience, and other resources based on cooperative principles, a promising business environment is created. By optimizing these potentials, a business foundation is created, whose upgrade can not be confined to external economic factors. -Modern cooperatives operating in the most developed regions of the world have long recognized that association is the most appropriate dam for opposing the interests of large business entities. At present, this is the only way for small producers to protect their profits and their interests. By doing this, the majors are able to bring themselves into the equal position of negotiators on the market.
-The first cooperative in the world, it was a textile cooperative, and it was founded in the United Kingdom more than 150 years ago. Thus, the first commercial company that was established as “COOPER” was created. Cooperative. At their footsteps, many other people, eager to work, earn money, social and material security, soon began. Today, almost 100 million members of the cooperative community live and work in the EU countries, while at the global level there is just under one billion. -This way of cooperative business, especially in the field of agriculture, enables German producers to feed over 150 consumers, while that figure in our country is around 15.
– As we have already mentioned, local co-operatives were based on blood or family cooperatives. The co-operative mode of business actually worked well before the institutions regulated the area for the first time. It was created as a spontaneous need for solidarity activities, in order to achieve the common interests of the individual. Business association is as old as the human race itself and it started even before the emergence of a civilized society.
– The current way of managing the cooperative society from the Cooperative Cooperatives differs only from the administrative point of view, while the principles remained the same from prehistory to the present. Joint work, solidarity, mutual assistance, rational division of labor, achievement of the common goals of the cooperatives, as well as the realization of the general social good, are only a part of the mapped model of action since the emergence of humanity.
– The current governance bodies for cooperatives are just a substitute for the family committees of the day, and economic criminal responsibility in business has replaced former ethical family responsibility.
– In the villages around Jastrepac, it was once a mess of life, and cooperative cattle farming was an indispensable part of every household. There were almost no households that did not have their throats in the cooperative flock. At the end of the XIX and early XX centuries, rural family cooperatives were in Jastrebacki forests, over 200,000 heads of sheep, goats and cows fished. Although this is a data that has been actual for more than a century, these figures are impressive for today’s situation, and the monetary value of this cooperative mega crude exceeds € 30,000,000. Such livestock mossy herd could sell profits of 30,000,000-50,000,000,000 euros annually through the sale of meat and milk.
– Today, the cattle in the village of Devcha make a rarity, and the situation is not even better in other surrounding villages. Nowadays, the potentials of these dimensions are completely unimaginable. The reason why it is difficult to imagine the flocks of these dimensions is that the people are dominated by individualistic business consciousness. -Local mentality, the lack of sense of equality and the tendency to stratify the stock, are present in the nation and today. Individualist business consciousness, underestimation and vulgarization of cooperatives, as well as an almost mocking attitude towards those who accepted the work on cooperative principles, led to negative tendencies of rationalization of the economy. Such a stance was corrupted by the fact that there is a widespread opinion among the people that every cooperative activity of the individual is in direct conflict with the host business and with the image of the Serbian host. The negative image of a cooperative has taken on such a situation, to create a tendency to impose feelings of shame on everything that has cooperative connotations. Traditionalism in the business and self-isolation of business cells led to the closure of cooperatives as well as other promising economic institutions. Such self-insulated business cells of the company that were seen in individual farms became inadequate rivals to powerful corporations on the market. Corporate monopoly has used this opportunity to market the market, for which the divided small producers have failed to provide adequate resistance. The extinguishing of the cooperative led to the weakening of the holdings as autonomous business cells, which subsequently led to the extinguishing of a large number of these individual rural households. The few remaining rural farms became, in most cases, unproductive. Today’s villages no longer have their income in the agrarian sector, but they are trying to overcome an alternative solution for capturing, and it is not rare that members of the rural population are beneficiaries of social assistance.
– At the same time, modern co-operatives in the EU enjoy a very different reputation, and their members feel privileged because of their ability to act within them. Due to great interest, it is not uncommon for some potential members to wait for admission to the cooperative for years. Professional approach to business, constant modernization of the work process, permanent education and motivational trainings, contribute to the prosperity of the whole community. – The economy of the economy at the end of the last century in our region hit all business entities, so that the cooperatives were not exempt from these events. Public opinion on the issue of the cooperative has not changed much since then. -Beeding is one of the oldest branches of agriculture, and the first traces of beekeeping were observed in the neolithic age. It is one of the few agricultural activities that is unthinkable without any co-operative participation, even if it was about the collective activity of the people themselves.